会社 立ち 上げ 方法

会社 立ち 上げ 方法

会社 立ち 上げ 方法

会社法商法入門1 8 株式会社の設立手続 | 小泉司法書士予備校

詳細について 会社 立ち 上げ 方法



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Source: http://www.carbibles.com/engineoil_bible.html



The engine oil Bibles - everything you need to know about engine oil including viscosity, friction reducers, additives, oil types, sludge, SAE and API classifications and ratings, what all the codes and markings mean, how your engine oil works, how to keep your engine running at peak fitness and much more.

The Engine Oil Bible

How much do you value the engine in your car? The life of your engine depends in no small part on the quality of the oil you put in it - oil is its lifeblood. People typically don't pay much attention to their oil - oil is oil, right? In the bad old days, maybe, but engine oil underwent something of a revolution in the 80's and 90's when hot hatches, 16-valve engines and turbos started to become popular. High compression engines and black death meant the days of one oil catering for everyone were over. Take Castrol for example. They led the field for years with their GTX mineral oil. This was eventually surpassed by semi-synthetic and fully synthetic oils, including GTX2 and GTX3 Lightec. Those were surpassed by Formula SLX and most recently, Castrol GTX Magnatec. All manufacturers have a similar broad spectrum of oils now. I just mention Castrol in particular as they're my oil of choice.

What does my oil actually do?

Engine oil performs many functions. It stops all the metal surfaces in the engine from grinding together and tearing themselves apart from friction, and it transfers heat away from the combustion cycle. Engine oil also holds in suspension all the nasty by-products of combustion like silica (silicon oxide) and acids. Finally, engine oil minimises the exposure to oxygen and thus oxidation at higher temperatures. It does all of these things under tremendous heat and pressure.

How do I read the '5W40' type number?

As oils heat up, they generally get thinner. Single grade oils get too thin when hot for most modern engines which is where multigrade oil comes in. The idea is simple - use science and physics to prevent the base oil from getting too thin when it gets hot. The number before the 'W' is the 'cold' viscosity rating of the oil, and the number after the 'W' is the 'hot' viscosity rating. So a 5W40 oil is one that behaves like a 5-rated single grade oil when cold, but doesn't thin any more than a 40-rated single grade oil when hot. The lower the 'winter' number (hence the 'W'), the easier the engine will turn over when starting in cold climates. There's more detail on this later in the page under both viscosity, and SAE ratings.

A quick guide to the different grades of oil.What the heck was 'Black Death'?

'Black Death' first appeared in the early 80's when a sticky black substance was found to be the cause of many engine seizures in Europe. It was extremely frustrating for vehicle owners because dealers and mechanics had no idea what was going on. Black Death wasn't covered under insurance - owners had to pay to fix engines themselves. Many engines were affected but Ford and Vauxhall (GM) suffered the most. Faster roads, higher under-hood temperatures, tighter engineering tolerances and overworked engine oils turned out to be contributors to the problem. The oils just couldn't handle the demands, and changed their chemical makeup under pressure into a sort of tar-like glue. This blocked the oil channels in the engines, starving them of lubrication and causing them to seize. I don't recommend this but you can reproduce the effect with a frying pan, cooking oil and a blowtorch. The cooking oil will heat up far quicker than it is designed to, and will turn to a sticky black tar in the pan. Either that or it will set fire to your kitchen. Which is why I said "don't do this". Anyway, burning kitchens aside, Black Death was the catalyst for the production of newer higher quality oils, many of them man-made rather than mineral-based.

Black death for the 21st century: sludge

Black Death is still with us today but it has a new name - sludge. The cause is the same as Black Death and it seems to be regardless of maintenance or mileage. The chemical compounds in engine oils break down over time due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures and poor maintenance habits. When the oil oxidises, the additives separate from it and begin to chemically break down and solidify, leading to the baked-on oil deposits turning gelatinous, like black yoghurt. What doesn't help is that due to packaging, modern engines have smaller sumps than their older counterparts, and so hold less oil. This lower volume of oil can't hold as much combustion by-product in suspension, and that can lead to earlier chemical breakdown. The most common factor in sludge buildup is a combination of mineral oils, a lack of maintenance by the car owner and harsh driving conditions. However, a 2005 Consumer Reports article discovered that some engines from Audi, Chrysler, Saab, Toyota, and Volkswagen appear prone to sludge almost no matter how often the oil is changed.

What does sludge look like?

carbibles.com was contacted by a BMW driver who had been having a particularly harsh time with sludge and was discussing it on the Bimmerfest forums. He posted some images of his problem and other readers posted similarly-framed images of the same engine components in "normal" condition. Here are two of those photos. On the left is what the cam case should look like in a well maintained engine when photographed through the oil filler cap. On the right is what the same type of engine looks like when suffering sludge buildup. In this example, the consensus was that the sludge buildup was caused by an overheating engine, oil that hadn't been changed for 20,000 miles of stop-go city driving, a lot of cold starts and a period of about 12 months in storage without an oil change.

Picture credit: Ketchup at the Bimmerfest forums

Curing sludge

There are no hard and fast rules for curing an engine of sludge buildup. If it's really bad, flushing the engine might be the only cure, but that could cause even more problems. If flushing the engine results in bits of sludge getting lodged where they can do more damage, the engine is actually worse off. It's interesting to note that some race techs have reported sludge buildup in race engines as a result of aftermarket additives being used in conjunction with the regular oil. The chemical composition of the additives isn't as neutral as some companies would like us to believe, and combined with particular types of oil and high-stress driving, they can cause oil breakdown and sludge to appear. The lesson from them appears to be "don't use additives".

When is sludge not sludge?

Easy; when it's an oil and water emulsion from a leaking or blown head gasket. If this happens, there will be a white-cream coloured gel on the inside of the oil filler cap that looks like vanilla yoghurt or mayonnaise. The cap is typically cooler than the rest of the cam cover and so the oil/water mix tends to condense there. If the underside of the filler cap has this sort of deposit on it, chances are the engine has a blown head gasket. A surefire way to confirm this is if the oil level is going up and the coolant level is going down. The coolant gets through the breaks in the head gasket and mixes with the oil. When it gets to the sump it separates out and the oil floats on top. A more accurate way to check for this condition is to use a combustion leak tester, or block tester. In America, NAPA sell them for about (part #BK 7001006). In England, Sealey sell them for about £70 (model number VS0061). Combustion leak testers are basically a turkey baster filled with PH liquid, with a non-return valve at the bottom. To use one, run the engine for a few minutes until it is warm (not hot) then turn it off. Use a protective glove (like an oven glove) and take the radiator or reservoir cap off. Plug the bottom of the combustion leak tester into the hole and squeeze the rubber bulb on top. It will suck air from the top of the coolant through the non-return valve and bubble it through the PH liquid. If the liquid changes colour (normally blue to yellow), it means there is combustion gas in the coolant which means a head gasket leak.

There is one other possible cause for the mayonnaise: a blocked scavenger hose. Most engines have a hose that comes off the cam cover and returns to the engine block somewhere via a vacuum line. This is the scavenger hose that scavenges oil vapour and gasses that build up in the cam cover. If it becomes blocked, it can result in a buildup of condensation inside the cam cover, which can manifest itself as the yellow goop inside the filler cap.

VW / Audi sludge problems

The 1.8T engines in the older Audi A4's, Audi TT, VW Passat, Jetta, Golf, New Bettle, are all very prone to sludge build-up. VW/Audi recommends 10,000 mile service intervals, but oil changes can be done between "services", and should be done if the vehicle is driven in heavy traffic, offroad, and non-highway use. VW/Audi only warrant an engine if the customer has proof of all their oil changes. Since 2004, VAG recommended all their 1.8T engines use synthetic oil. So if you own one of these sludge-prone engines, what can you do? Obviously, Volkswagen Audi Group (VAG) states that you use only VW/Audi recommended oil. You should also keep up on your oil changes, making them more frequent if you drive hard or haul a lot of cargo. The most important thing for the VW or Audi owner is this: if the oil light comes on and beeps the high pitch beep that almost everyone ignores, pull over and shut the engine down immediately. Many VAG engines can be saved by this procedure. Have the vehicled towed to a VAG dealer. Their standard procedure is to inspect the cam bearings; if they're not scored, the oil pan will be removed and cleaned out and all the crankcase breather hoses and the oil pickup tube will be replaced. They'll do an oil pressure test with a mechanical gauge, and hopefully will also replace the turbo lines. Finally, the turbo will be checked for bearing free-play. The VAG turbos run really hot even with proper oil and coolant supply - that's why you need a good quality synthetic in them.

Toyota sludge problems

For their part, Toyota have the dubious honour of having the most complaints about sludge buildup in their engines - over 5,000 in 2008 alone. At the time of writing there is a class action suit going on against them. Details can be found at www.oilgelsettlement.com

Saab sludge problems

For an example of sludge in a Saab 9 5 Aero with only 42,000 miles on it, you might be interested to read my case study on this engine, put together with the help of a reader. Our sludge case study.

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Mineral or synthetic motor oil?

Mineral oils are based on oil that comes from dear

Source: http://www.walmart.ca/en/ip/castrol-edge-spt-5w40-5l/6000016955754

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