Carnival is a holiday born in the Christian tradition, although in outward appearance he resembled Dionysus and Apollonia. In the popular imagination was strong pagan element. Low level of culture, contributed. The perception of God and all that Christianity has a man for many centuries was available only a few educated people. The main thing that has spread among the people and was perceived in a truly Christian sense is preaching about morality. Christian hope, the only thing that somehow strengthened people in the dark ages of the middle ages, and instilled the belief that all will be rewarded and will be different. But that “once” was a completely different world, and an outlet in this world was the carnival. This large folk festivals lasting several days, during which it was allowed that was not permissible in ordinary life. The world seemed to be turned over – and the jester had become king, he could give orders, poor dad and could rule the world. People dressed weird and funny, they put on face masks and were committing all sorts of outrages. In the medieval carnival mask is his own face, only to reverse himself. Masks were often similar to animals: people could not create himself, but reverse itself. The reverse side of a person is his baser, animal instincts and manifestations. Hence the ambivalence, the opposite of himself. The carnival is the antithesis of the ideal of the Christian world, this world of sordid, carnal pleasures, the world turned inside out, where everyone can be the antithesis of himself. The carnival is held once a year and lasted for several days, during these holidays were allowed robberies, immoral acts that were seen as the juxtaposition of Christian morality, within the strict limits which the people had been after the carnival. However, under Christian morality meant certain civilian positions, and, in fact, not herself. A personal appeal to God as the notion of morality, were the medieval man almost unknown, it was state-sanctioned and established by the social rails, why the person was perceived as a purely external circumstances in which he lived, and not as internal, intrinsic reality. Important – carnival laughter, festive laughter, he wasn’t an individual reaction to separate a funny phenomenon, carnival laughter nationwide, it’s a laugh “in the world”, it is universal, it is directed at everything and everyone, including the participants of the carnival, the whole world is perceived funny, “this laughter is ambivalent, he was a merry, joyous and at the same time mocking, deriding, and he denies, and alleges” (M. Bakhtin). microcredits in Moscow on the passport, JSC
Laughter has another facet – double nature: it reveals the fear of talking about death and violation of the ban, however, saves us from the horror of existence. Carnival laughter is the laughter of a Christian, not pagan, as in paganism, laughter existed only to ridicule the secret of human existence and the state, and in Christianity acquires a special depth – opening person bans, the outcrop of fear, death and emptiness.
For carnival specially the texts not written, just invent scenarios. But by the thirteenth century in France and Germany there is a special carnival genre of literature, Fabio – small funny stories or fables, ridiculing the vices, the Church and state. In France the most famous writer of pablio was Rutbe, and in Germany – shtriker music. For example, Fabio Rumbera “On the Cow, the priest’s cow”.